Glossary

Therapy Insider Glossary

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A-bomb
A cigarette that is made by combining marijuana and heroin.
Abulia
A mental disorder that primarily results in an extreme lack of motivation. Often symptoms will appear similar to those experienced by sufferers of depression.
Academic Support
The portion of a treatment program that focuses on helping children and teens improve their academic performance. This is often important to the overall success of therapy.
Accrued Deficits
The process by which an initial problem in a person's development causes further delays in that development over time.
Acculturation Difficulty
This occurs when a person has difficulty accepting or living up to cultural standards in their community. This often causes a great deal of stress and anxiety.
Acid
A hallucinogenic drug that is often used by youths at large events. This substance can be incredibly dangerous due to the impact it has on a person's decision making abilities.
Acting Out


|?akti ng | |out|
act.ing/ out
n.noun

Acting out is the actions of a child who displays out of control, and self-destructive behaviors. Adolescents who consistently exhibit out of control behaviors are commonly referred to as, troubled teens. With proper psychiatric treatment, a troubled teen who displays self-sabotaging behavioral patters, can overcome their troubled mindset and successfully meet their potential.

Parents of a child who regularly acts out, may feel as though they have tried everything in terms of correcting their child's inappropriate behaviors. Parents will often turn to self-help books, parenting experts and even participate in parent workshops. Nonetheless, some parents continue to struggle and feel at a loss in parenting an out of control child. For parents such as these, there are behavioral modification services that cater to their child's psychiatric needs.

There are nearly countless troubled teen services that assist helpless parents who feel as though they are helpless in correcting their child's behavior. Additionally, treatment options such as, therapeutic boarding schools, residential treatment facilities, group homes and wilderness therapy programs for troubled teens are the most popular choices for struggling parents.

Acute Stress Disorder
A disorder that leaves someone susceptible to severe bouts of stress that can leave them virtually incapacitated. These stress attacks can be very similar to a panic attack.
Adderall
This is a medication that is often prescribed for ADD or ADHD. It is also frequently abused by individuals for both recreational purposes and to aid in focusing on school work or other projects.
Addiction

ad·dic·tion
/a-dik-SHun/
n.noun

synonyms: dependency, dependence, habit, problem

Addiction is a medical condition of the brain that is characterized by a compulsive or persistent relationship with rewarding stimuli, despite negative or adverse consequences. It is often referred to as a disease or biological process that creates unhealthy attachments to a substance or activity, resulting in abusive and/or debilitating behaviors.

Addiction is a dangerous behavior that can affect a person in a numerous amount of ways. Addicts may be addicted to a harmful substance, such as methamphetamine, cocaine or alcohol. Additionally, a person may suffer from non-substance addictions such as self-harm, eating disorder or gambling habit. Although very different from one another, substance and non-substance addictions are both dangerous and potentially life threatening. Moreover, a person who suffers from an addiction requires specialized treatment in order to achieve adequate rehabilitation.

There are many different types of facilities, treatments, and therapeutic methods used in treating an addicted individual. One-on-one therapies, group sessions, and 24-hour treatment care are the most efficient options in terms of treating an addicted person. The specific treatment that best suits an individual, exclusively depends on their particular addictions and the severity of their habits.

RESOURCES FOR ADDICTION HELP

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
Gamblers Anonymous (GA)

Addiction Treatment Programs
Programs designed to help individuals who have been struggling with substance abuse overcome the difficulties of withdrawal while building the skills necessary to avoid relapse.
ADHD


at·ten·tion def·i·cit dis·or·der
n. noun

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, yet very common condition that affects millions of children in the United States. ADHD is a mixture of several different problems that may include, difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior.

Often, young men and women who struggle with ADHD also have a low self-esteem, trouble maintaining relationships and may display poor performances in school and on the job. While symptoms do sometimes subside with age, some individuals never outgrow their ADHD symptoms. With adequate treatment, however, young men and women can learn how to control their ADHD and use their ailment to their advantage.

While there is no cure for ADHD, treatment can significantly help deal with symptoms. Treatment varies, but usually includes medication and therapy. The earlier the diagnosis of ADHD, the better treatment can lessen the symptoms of ADHD. Therefore, it is critical for young men and women to seek the necessary treatment options for their ADHD.

ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is similar to ADD but can often become more extreme. In addition, this condition includes extreme amounts of energy and is often characterized by being unable to remain still.
Adjustment Disorder
The inability to adapt to new circumstances in a healthy way. This problem can particularly effect teens and children who move to new areas.
Adolescent Behavior Assessment
The process of a clinician reviewing the ways a child or teen is acting out and seeking to provide an accurate diagnosis. Following the diagnosis, the clinician will attempt to identify the appropriate therapeutic option.
Adolescent Development
The process of maturing and developing that occurs between childhood and young adulthood. During this time period, an individual will go through a number of significant mental, physical, and hormonal changes.
Adolescent Therapy
Treatment and support designed to intervene in the lives of adolescents who are struggling. Some of the issues this therapy can address include substance abuse, anger, and poor academic performance.
Adoption
The act of a person or couple acting as parents to a child that is not biologically theirs. This will often stress the parent-child relationship.
Adult Antisocial Behavior
When a person behaves in a way that is either deemed socially unacceptable or is actually aggressive towards society in general. This will often result in extreme difficulty forming social relationships and even legal consequences some cases.
Adventure Therapy
A form of therapy that relies on using new and exciting experiences to help individuals come to terms with the problems they have been struggling with. Often, a person going through this type of treatment will engage in a simulated risk situation while accompanied by a counselor.
Affective Disorders
Affective disorders are conditions that impact a persons mood. A person afflicted by these conditions will often be unable to regulate their emotions in a healthy way.
Aftercare Programs
Treatments meant to keep a person sober after they have left an addiction treatment center.
Aggression
Behaving in a manner that is either physically or verbally confrontational. Teens will often deal with the problem of heightened aggression.
Agoraphobia
A chronic and debilitating fear of the being in certain environments. One of the most common manifestations of this condition is a fear of being outdoors.
Air Blast
A slang term that refers to inhalants.
Alcohol
A liquid substance that has intoxicating properties and is one of the most popular drugs in the world. It can be very addictive and is harmful to physical and mental health when consumed in large quantities.
Alcohol Addiction
Having a physical or mental dependence on alcohol. Those suffering from alcohol addiction will have a compulsive urge to engage in the abuse of this substance.
Alcoholic
A person who has a compulsive need to drink alcohol due to either physical or mental dependence.
Algophobia
A mental condition that is primarily defined as a fear of pain. In some situations this fear can become debilitating.
Alienation
The process of becoming increasingly distant from family and peers. This often occurs due to illness or difficulties that cause a separation between the individual and his or her peers.
Amentia
A mental condition that causes retardation due to a lack of development in the brain.
Amped
A slang term for being high on amphetamines
Anankastic Personality
An alternate term for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Those afflicted will have difficulty regulating their thoughts and will often be compelled to engage in ritualistic behaviors to alleviate stress.
Angel Dust
The street term for the drug PCP.
Anger Management

ang.er man.age.ment

|?a ng g?r| |?manijm?nt|
n.noun

An. It is through this action that the angered person is then able to cope with anger in a positive and productive manner. Anger is a normal, healthy emotion when you know how to express it appropriately.

There are many different types of anger management treatment that varies in severity as well as approach to treating those who struggle with controlling their anger. An individual battling anger issues can find anger management treatment from a psychological professional for weekly sessions, as well as treatment centers for those who require extensive anger management recovery.

Anger management isn't an activity that suppresses or prevents anger, but instead, is a healthy, alternative approach to dealing with that anger. Anger issues, if, not managed appropriately, could, in fact, result in dire, life-altering consequences

Anhedonia
This condition is closely associated with depression and generally manifests as an inability to enjoy anything or feel happiness. Those afflicted with this problem will often feel as if they have no reason to live and sink deeply into depression.
Anomie
When a person becomes alienated from his community and peers due to different values and beliefs. The symptoms of this condition often resemble those exhibited by someone with antisocial personality disorder.
Anorexia
A serious eating disorder that often impacts teens. Those afflicted with this condition will continually believe that they are overweight and starve themselves. This often quickly leads to serious health problems and even death in serious cases.
Antidepressant
A drug that is prescribed to help alleviate the symptoms of depression. There are a number of different types of these drugs but the most common is SSRI's. These work by increasing the amount of serotonin that is present in the brain.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A developmental disorder that makes it difficult for individuals to make connections with others. A person afflicted by this disorder will generally have a number of serious problems with their social development.
Anxiety
Nervousness or fear that is chronic and debilitating. Anxiety disorders can cause a variety of different physical and mental issues in those who suffer from this condition.
Apathy
A general lack of care and concern for the anyone or anything. This is often a symptom of depression or some other mental illness.
Asperger syndrome

Asperger syndrome (also known as Aspergers) is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests.

Assertive Community Treatment
A treatment model that emphasizes the importance of incorporating multiple resources from around the community in a planned and concerted effort.
At Risk Teens
Teens who are likely to develop problems or engage in dangerous behaviors. Some of the warning signs for teens include their grades, the friends they spend time with, and the involvement of their parents.
Authoritarian Parenting
A parenting style that relies on strict adherence to a set of rules and standards. This often includes serious punishments for any violation of these rules.
Autism
A mental disorder that is characterized by disinterest in socialization and difficulty developing independence. The reasons behind this disorder are not fully understood and those dealing with it can experience vastly difference symptoms and levels of functionality.
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Any disorder that falls within the basic definition of autism. Often includes lack of emotional attachment, poor communication skills, and poor social skills.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
A disorder that makes a person reluctant to engage in social situations. In some cases this may seem like a case of very severe shyness.
B-40
A combination of tobacco and marijuana which is rolled into cigar then soaked in malt liquor.
Back To Back
When a drug addict uses heroin and crack cocaine in immediate succession.
Bad Seed
Refers to marijuana that has been mixed with peyote and sometimes heroin.
Bagging
The act of getting high on inhalants by using a paper bag.
Bath Salts
A form of drugs whose chemical makeup can vary wildly but often has effects similar to methamphetamine. It is called bath salts as it was originally sold as such to avoid legal ramifications.
Behavior Camps
Treatment facilities that focus on providing discipline and encouraging appropriate choices in patients.
Behavior Modification

be·ha·vior mod·i·fi·ca·tion
noun

1. Rooted in the principles of operant conditioning, Behavior Modification is a treatment strategy that replaces or "modifies" undesirable behavioral patterns with more desirable ones, through learning techniques such as biofeedback and/or positive/negative reinforcement.

Behavior Modification was developed by American psychologist and behaviorist B. F. Skinner (1904-1990). Skinner formulated the concept of operant conditioning by observing that behaviors could be shaped by reinforcement (encouraging certain behaviors through a system of rewards) or lack of it. In Behavior Modification therapy, it is common for the therapist to write a contract with the patient to establish the terms of the reward system.

2. Other commonly used terms are Behavioral Therapy or Applied Behavior Analysis.

Behavior therapy

As a broad term referring to psychotherapy, behavior analytical therapy (or a combination of both), Behavior therapy, in its broadest sense, focuses on either just behaviors or in combination with thoughts and feelings that might be causing them.

Behavioral Catalyst
An event or situation that causes a certain type of reaction in a person when it occurs.
Behavioral Health
The ability to achieve a level of mental and emotional stability that allows for normal and healthy functioning.
Bereavement
Sadness or depression that can occur following the death of a loved one. In normal circumstances this will only last for a short period of time.
Binge Drinking
The act of drinking an excessive quantity at one time, often with the goal of becoming heavily intoxicated. This type of drinking in particular has serious health risks.
Binge Eating Disorder
A disorder that is characterized by a person going through periods of near starvation punctuated by eating extremely large amounts of food. This eating pattern can have a negative impact on a person's health.
Bingers
A slang term for people addicted to crack cocaine.
Bipolar Disorder
A mental health condition that is characterized by extreme swings in mood. Those suffering from this disorder will find themselves quickly switching between mania and severe depression for no apparent reason.
Blue Ice
A street name for methamphetamine.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
A mental illness in which a person will become obsessed with perceived faults in their physical appearance that may or may not actually exist.
Bonding
The process of forming an emotional attachment between two people.
Boot Camp

|boōt||kamp|
n.noun

Boot camps were initially created to assist soldiers in preparing for war. The United States uses boot camps to prepare young soldiers for all of the scenarios of warfare, and provides them with the skills and knowledge they require for adequately protecting our country. However, within the last 50 years, boot camps have become widely popular in treating troubled adolescents who display out of control behaviors. Behavioral modification programs, such as these, are commonly referred to as, boot camps for troubled teens.

In terms of treating troubled teens, boot camps are a relatively new treatment. Starting in the 1960's, boot camps have become an ever increasing treatment option chosen by parents of troubled adolescents. However, Boot camps believe in negative reinforcement in order to 'break' teen's negative behaviors. Psychiatric professionals view boot camps' negative reinforcement strategy to be ineffective in promoting permanent change in troubled teens. In short, parents would be better off choosing an alternative to boot camps for troubled teens.

Alternative treatment options to boot camps

Although a child may appear to have 'changed' after returning home from a boot camp for troubled teens, the child's 'improved behavior' will almost certainly be short-lived. This is because  boot camps do not provide any necessary therapeutic restoration that the teen desperately needs. Therefore, choosing an alternative treatment option, such as residential treatment or a therapeutic boarding school for troubled teens, may be the best solution.

Borderline Personality Disorder
A mental health issues that results in quickly changing and difficult to control emotions. This in turn often leads to difficulty establishing healthy relationships.
Boys Boarding Schools
A facility that offers troubled boys a place to live as they receive therapeutic treatments and continue their education. This is often one of the first treatment options parents will consider.
Brain Disorder
A general term that encompasses a wide range of different physical and mental illnesses that impact brain function.
Bulimia
An eating disorder in which a person will continue to eat normally but will subsequently intentionally regurgitate their meals. Besides dangerous amounts of weight loss and malnutrition, the forced vomiting this disorder encourages can have a number of health impacts.
Bully
A person who repeatedly and willfully harasses and intimidates individuals with little or no provocation. This is often a self-defense mechanism for those dealing with difficult issues without support.
Capgras' Syndrome
A mental disorder that drives and individual to believe that someone around them has been replaced by an impostor.
Chemical Dependency Counselors
Therapists that are specifically trained to help individuals deal with substance abuse. This is often one of the first treatment options an addict seeking assistance will turn to.
Child Behavior Modification
A program meant to bring about lasting changes to the choices and actions of a child. These often rely upon therapy to bring about this change.
Child Defiance
When a child is unwilling to take direction from parents or other authority figures.
Christian Boarding Schools
Therapeutic treatment centers that allow teens and children to continue their education while getting help in a religious environment.
Christian Summer Programs
Therapeutic programs for children and teens which take place over the summer and incorporate religious values.
Chronic Illness
A condition that continually effects and individual over a long period of time. It can be either constant or recurring.
Claustrophobia
A debilitating fear of small or enclosed spaces.
Clinical Diagnosis
The opinion of a medical professional as to the reasons behind the difficulties or disorders a person is dealing with. This is essential to finding the correct treatment method for any condition.
Clinician
A person who works with patients to provide both diagnosis and treatment. The clinician will often be the primary way a person receives treatment for their problem.
Cocaine
A drug that is a powerful stimulant and has highly addictive properties. Because Cocaine is so addictive, users will often experience significant difficult in ceasing use. In addition, it has been demonstrated that long-term use can cause significant health issues.
Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of psychotherapy. The name refers to Behavior therapy, Cognitive therapy, and therapy based upon a combination of basic behavioral and cognitive principles. It was originally designed to treat depression, but is now used for a number of mental disorders.

Cognitive therapy

Expounded by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s, Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy and therapeutic approaches within the larger group of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT). Cognitive therapy is based on the cognitive model, which states that thoughts, feelings and behavior are all connected; and that individuals can move toward overcoming difficulties and meeting their goals by identifying and changing unhelpful or inaccurate thinking, problematic behavior, and distressing emotional responses.

Comorbidity
When a person is suffering from multiple conditions at the same time. This can make diagnosis and treatment much more complicated.
Compulsion
An extremely strong urge to engage in a behavior. Often, a person may consciously wish not to take an action but will be unable to resist their compulsion to do so.
Compulsive Lying
When a person is constantly driven to deceive those around them, regardless of any personal gain that may result from this deception. This have a severe impact on personal relationships.
Compulsive Thoughts
Frequent and often disturbing thoughts that person is unable to deal with. This is a common symptom of OCD.
Coping
The method by which an individual deals with traumatic events that occur in their life. Effective coping is essential to maintaining a healthy mental state as trauma is inevitable for every individual.
Couples Therapy
A treatment program that focuses on identifying the issues that are causing difficulties in a relationship. This is frequently used by spouses seeking to avoid divorce by addressing their problems in a therapeutic context.
Crack
A modified version of cocaine that is thought to be more addictive than other forms. Due to it's addictive nature, crack is considered one of the most dangerous drugs available.
Crank
An alternate term for Methamphetamine.
Cyberbully
A bully whose primary means of harassment and intimidation are online. This form of bullying has become increasingly prevalent with the rise in Internet use among teens.
Dangerous Behavior
Actions taken by a person that can cause serious harm to them or others. Some of the most common types of dangerous behaviors include violence, drug use, alcohol abuse, and gang activity.
Defense Mechanism
Actions and behavioral patterns that have been established to prevent trauma. Defense mechanisms often form after a particularly difficult experience that an individual is determined not to repeat.
Defiance
The act of being resistant to the instruction and guidance of authority figures. This is often a problem that occurs in teens.
Dementia
An impairment of mental ability to the point of confusion and delusion. There can be a number of different reasons behind the development of this condition, including substance abuse, injury, and various mental illnesses.
Denial
When a person is unable to admit to themselves and others that they are experiencing a serious problem. This is dangerous as it gets in the way of finding necessary treatment.
Dependent Personality Disorder
A mental illness that is characterized by the relying completely on another person or group of people for basic needs. This is often formed in early childhood and can grow more severe later in life.
Depression
A medical condition that is common in teens and results in feelings of sadness, a marked lack of energy, changes in personality, and suicidal tendencies in extreme cases.
Detox
A therapeutic program designed to help those suffering from addiction overcome the initial period of withdrawals. A detox program often focuses on helping individuals deal with the physical problems withdrawal causes.
Developmental Disability
A disorder that inhibits a person's social, emotional, or mental progress as they mature. These conditions can seriously impact an individuals mental state and overall quality of life.
Diagnosis
A professional opinion on the conditions that are causing the problems an individual is facing. Receiving the correct diagnosis is essential to the success of the overall recovery process.
Divorce Issues
The behavioral and relationship problems that occur in children and teens when their parents divorce. This is a common problem in families.
Downers
Drugs that have a sedative effect. The most common and popular downer is alcohol.
Drug Holiday
The act of temporarily ceasing intake of a medication for the purpose of controlling dosage and analyzing possible effects.
Drug Rehab
A therapeutic program designed to help in overcoming addiction. These programs will often initially help a patient make it through the process of withdrawal then help them form the skills they need to avoid future substance abuse.
Drugs
Mind altering substances that often have addictive properties. These substances are also capable of causing physical and mental harm when consumed.
Drunk
The state of being intoxicated by alcohol. While drunk, decision making and memory can be severely impaired.
Dual Diagnosis
The existence of multiple disorders in one person concurrently. This can make it incredibly difficult for clinicians to get an accurate diagnosis and provide the right treatment.
Dyslexia
A learning disorder that mainly impacts reading ability and comprehension. This disorder can make success in school and work very difficult and often requires specialized treatment.
Dysphoric Mood
This is a mental state closely related to depression. It generally involves a person being a poor mood and having low energy.
Dysthymia
A specific type of depression that lasts for a significant amount of time.
Early Intervention
The act of identifying an illness or difficulty before it has fully manifested or grown severe and providing treatment. This strategy has a much higher rate of success than later intervention.
Eating Disorders
Mental illnesses that involve changes to the way a person eats. Various disorders can influence a person to starve themselves or eat to much. These are generally very dangerous to the overall health of a person.
Educational Consultants
Trained individuals that help parents identify the right programs to deal with issues or disorders their children are struggling with.
Electroconvulsive Therapy
A form of treatment that uses electric shocks to attempt to bring about improvement in patients. This treatment has been most successful in cases of severe depression.
Emotional Health
A persons generally emotional state and their ability to maintain that emotional balance.
Emotional Problems
The condition of being unable to regulate thoughts and feelings in a healthy and functional way.
Emotions
The feelings that a person has in response to both external and internal catalysts.
Empathy
The ability to feel compassion and understanding for others. Empathy is essential to the formation of emotional connections and long-term relationships.
Employment Programs
A service that seeks to find jobs for those who have been struggling to find employment.
Entitlement
An individuals belief that they deserve a certain level of care and comfort.
Equine Therapy
A form of treatment most often used for children and teens. It emphasizes building empathy and responsibility through controlled interaction with horses.
Extraversion
When an individuals personality is extremely outgoing and social. The opposite of being introverted.
Failure To Launch
When parents are unable to convince their grown child to leave the home and establish themselves as an independent adult.
Family Therapy
A form of treatment that seeks to address issues within a family and bring them closer together. This can often be a vital part of a the recovery process for individuals within the family who are attempting to recover from issues like drug or alcohol addiction.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A disorder that is caused by a woman consuming alcohol while she is pregnant. This disorder can cause a variety of learning and developmental issues.
Folie à deux
A rare condition that involved a shared mental delusion that is transferred between two people.
Gambling Addiction
The compulsive need to place bets. This can often be incredibly damaging to an individuals finances and personal life.
Gender Identity
A person's individual view of their sexual identity and the role they believe that plays in their life.
Gender Role
The cultural expectation of how a male or female is supposed to behave. This can cause problems when it conflicts with an individuals beliefs or desires.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A condition where a person experiences anxiety that isn't directly related to a particular situation or cause.
Girls Boarding Schools
A facility that offers educational and therapeutic services to girls who have been struggling with problems like depression, substance abuse, violence, or poor academic performance.
Grief
The emotional and mental state that results when a person is dealing with the results of a traumatic event or personal loss.
Group Homes
A therapeutic treatment option that centers around providing a controlled environment where an individual can live while they address their issues. These often include constant care and supervision by a trained staff.
Group Therapy
A form of treatment that emphasizes shared experience and communal support in the recovery process. This type of therapy is often useful for teens, due to the high degree of influence peers exert over their actions and beliefs.
Gustatory Hallucination
A hallucination that focuses on a person smelling something that isn't actually there. This can occur due to drug use or a variety of mental conditions.
Halfway House
A residential facility that helps people transition from the treatment program they had been going through back to a normal life. It will often include various forms of therapy to help keep residents on the right track.
Hallucination
When a person perceives that something has happened which actually hasn't taken place. This can be the result of drug use or a variety of mental illnesses and conditions.
Heroin
An extremely dangerous drug that is derived from the poppy plant. Heroin is considered so dangerous due to its highly addictive nature and the increased tolerance frequent users quickly build.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
This is a mental condition that drives individuals to have an extreme desire for attention. This will ultimately drive them to act out in dramatic and unreasonable ways in the pursuit of attention.
Hypnosis
A mental state that leaves a person relaxed and more open to suggestion than usual.
Hypnotherapy
A type of treatment that relies upon putting a person in a hypnotic state and then addressing the issues they have been struggling with. Some studies have found this to be very effective in treating addiction.
IEP

For IEP see Individualized Education Program

Impulse Control Issues
When a person has difficulty analyzing the possible outcomes of their choices instead of just acting on their desires immediately. Being unable to control impulses can quickly lead many individuals into dangerous choices.
Independent Living Programs
A type of treatment that helps teens and young adults learn to live independently in a healthy and responsible way. These programs are often used by former drug addicts seeking to remain sober.
Individualized Education Program

Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a document developed for each public school child who is eligible for special education. The IEP, as defined by federal regulations, determines the individualized objectives of a child who has been found with a disability; and is intended to help children reach educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. The IEP is created through a team effort and reviewed periodically (in Canada and the UK, an equivalent document is called an Individual Education System).

The procedural requirements for development of the IEP are:

  • Determination of eligibility for special education (whether the child qualifies for special education services)
  • Members of the IEP team (must include; student, student's parent(s)/guardian(s), special education teacher, regular education teacher, representative of the school or district, and an individual who can interpret the instructional implications of eval results)
  • Role of the parents (parents are considered to be full and equal members of the IEP team)
  • Developing the child's education plan ( IEP team is required to develop an individual education plan to be implemented as soon as possible)
  • Determining the appropriate placement (the environment in which the child's IEP can most readily be implemented)
  • Acceptance and amendments (IEP is required to be accepted and signed by parent/guardian before any services begin)
  • Implementation (implementing all educational services, program modifications or supports)
  • Annual review (conducting an annual review to ensure that the student is meeting goals and/or making progress)
Individualized Treatment Rehabilitation Plan
A treatment program that is specifically designed to fit the lifestyle and needs of a particular person. This type of treatment stands in contrast to programs that apply the same methods to every individual.
Individuation
The process by which a person establishes their individual identity and independence. This is an important part a person transitioning from childhood to adulthood.
Inhalants
Household products that are inhaled by individuals for the purpose of getting high. These are some of the most dangerous substances a person can abuse.
Inhibition
A reluctance to engage in certain actions or become involved in situations.
Inpatient Treatment
Treatment that involves a person living at the facility where they are going through treatment.
Intellectualization
A coping method that relies on using abstract thought to deal with difficult thoughts and emotions. This will often stop an individual from coming to terms with their issues and addressing them in a healthy way.
Intensive Outpatient Programs
A program that seeks to provide extensive treatment to a person without having them live at the treatment facility.
Internalized Values
The beliefs that a person has formed throughout their life about their place in the world and the correct manner in which they and others should behave. These can have a significant impact on how a person's personality develops and the choices they make.
Interpersonal Relationships
The personal, emotional, and social connections that occur between people. These are incredibly important to the overall quality of a person's life.
Intervention
The act of attempting to stop a person from continuing with a certain behavior. This most often refers to family and friends of drug or alcohol addicts attempting to get them to stop abusing substances and find professional help.
Isolation
When a person either intentionally or unintentionally withdraws from all social contact. This can be very harmful to mental health if it continues over a long period of time.
Junkie
A person who has been unable to control their addictions and has embraced a lifestyle involving extreme drug use.
Learned Helplessness
The process by which a person increasingly relies upon others to take care of basic needs. This occurs over a long period of time and it is often difficult for an individual to reestablish their independence.
Learning Disorders
Mental impairments that get in the way of normal educational progress. These can often be dealt with through medication or therapy.
Life Coaching
A form of counseling that seeks to help motivate individuals and guide them towards the right choices.
Low Self-Esteem
When a person has a generally low opinion of themselves and a lack of belief in their abilities.
LSD
A drug that causes extreme disorientation and hallucinations. It can be incredibly dangerous as users and completely unaware of possible dangers in the world around them and may act in a reckless manner.
Manic Depression
This is a condition that results in mental instability, with those afflicted experiencing wild swings between depression and ecstatic happiness. Those dealing with this condition will have a great deal of difficulty maintaining any kind of emotional equilibrium.
Manic Episode
Periods of extreme energy, happiness, or enthusiasm that punctuate depressive episodes in those with bipolar disorder.
Marijuana
A drug that is generally smoked or eaten and has a psychological effect. It is thought to have a negative impact on memory when consumed regularly and can cause extreme anxiety in some individuals.
Masochism
A mental condition in which a person enjoys being hurt. This will often drive a person to seek out dangerous and harmful situations to satisfy this need.
MDMA
Also known as ecstasy, this drug is often associated with parties and concerts.
Meditation
A mental exercise that is meant to relieve stress and anxiety. This is a traditional element of many religions.
Mental Disorder
A chronic problem that involves a persons mood, emotions, or overall state of mind. These often require professional help to overcome.
Mental Health
An individual's ability to regulate their emotions and react to their environment in a healthy manner.
Mental Health Treatment Programs
Therapeutic programs that are specifically designed to improve the mental health of participants and help them come to terms with any disorders they have been struggling with.
Mental Illness Stigma
The general attitude of disdain that many cultures or individuals have to those with mental health problems. This is one of the major obstacles to many people seeking out the treatment they need.
Mental Retardation
A lack of mental development caused by a congenital disorder.
Mental Status
A persons mood and emotional state. This can be effected by events and any mental disorders that exist.
Meth
A dangerous stimulant that can be made up of a variety of household ingredients.
Methadone
A drug that is often used as a treatment to those going through withdrawal from heroin. It can also be abused however.
Milieu Therapy
A form of group therapy that uses community involvement and shared responsibility to encourage individuals who had been struggling to make better choices and get their lives back on track.
Military Boarding Schools
Schools meant to bring about improvements in the behavior of children and teens which also include a military element.
Millennials
A slang term for the generation of people born around the year 2000.
Misogyny
A bias against or active persecution of females. This is common in some societies and cultures.
Moderation
Consuming a substance, such as alcohol, in small and controlled amounts. This is the safest method of ingesting intoxicating substances.
Mood
The overall emotional state that a person is experiencing.
Motivation Issues
When a person has difficulty accomplishing necessary tasks in their life. There can be a variety of reasons behind a person developing this problem.
Mushrooms
A plant that is often consumed with the goal of causing hallucinations. This can be dangerous, as users and completely unaware of possible dangers in the world around them and may act in a reckless manner. In addition, it is unknown what long-term impact use of mushrooms might have on the brain.
Narcissism
An extreme self-involvement or undeserved high opinion of oneself. This will often get in the way of forming healthy relationships and the overall happiness of a person.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
A disorder in which a person's self-involvement reaches the point where it inhibits normal social function and establishing meaningful relationships.
Negative Peer Groups
A group of friends that are involved in driving a teen or child towards poor choices. This is most common in young people as they are more susceptible to peer influence.
Negative Thinking
A pattern of thought that focuses on the perceived problems a person is experiencing. In the long-term, continually negative thinking can lead some individuals to develop depression or other mental health issues.
Neuropsychiatry
A form of therapy that focuses on identifying tangible problems in the brain that can be causing or contributing to disorders.
Neurotypical

Neurotypical (an abbreviation of "neurologically typical") is a relatively new or esoteric term widely used in the autistic community as a label for people who are not on the autism spectrum. In other words, this refers to anyone who does not have any developmental disabilities such as some forms of autism, dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder, or ADHD.

Nicotine
An addictive stimulant that is present in cigarettes and many other tobacco products. Because it is highly addictive, it is considered very dangerous as it encourages continual abuse of tobacco.
Night Terrors
A sleep disorder that most commonly occurs in children. It is characterized by short bouts of extreme fear or panic.
Nihilistic Delusion
A mental condition where a person believes that nothing is real and both themselves and others do not actually exist.
Obesity
The condition of being significantly overweight. This is becoming a particularly serious problem among children and teens. Some of the most significant health risks include diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
Obsession
When a person become completely focused on something to the point of neglecting other aspects of their life. It can also refer to a specific fear that a person suffering from OCD has.
OCD
Obsessive-compulsive disorder. This is a mental health issue characterized by uncontrollable and upsetting thought and nervous tics. Those suffering from OCD will often have anxiety issues as well.
Olfactory Hallucination
The perception that you are smelling something that is not there. This condition can be caused by a number of different mental illnesses and illegal substances.
Opium
A highly addictive drug that is the main component in many pain killers. Because of natural tolerance buildup, overdoses are common among regular users.
Oxycontin
An opiate based prescription pain killer that is commonly abused. This drug in particular can be dangerous and addictive.
Painkillers
A wide range of prescription drugs that are often addictive and have similar effects to small doses of heroin or opium. One of the reasons for this similarity is the the fact that like these drugs they are often poppy based.
Panic Attack
An extreme burst of anxiety that can be random or brought on by some catalyst. Those experiencing a panic attack will often have trouble breathing and may even pass out.
Panic Disorder
A mental issue in which a person suffers from frequent and extreme attacks of anxiety and stress. There are a variety of panic disorders that can cause these symptoms.
Parental Alienation
When children become unreasonably angry at or emotionally detached from their parents. This most frequently occurs in cases where parents have recently divorced.
PCP
Also known as angel dust, this street drug is incredibly dangerous and causes dissociative and hallucinogenic effects.
Peers
The friends and acquaintances that a person associates with on a regular basis. These individuals can have a great deal of influence on a person's actions and beliefs.
Permissive Parenting
A parenting style in which parents are extremely lax in setting and enforcing rules. This can lead to many different behavioral problems in children.
Personality Disorders
A condition that results in a person adopting patterns of thinking and behavior that are not compatible with society.
Peyote
A common hallucinogenic drug.
Phobia
A deep seated fear or inhibition. Often, these will negatively impact a persons life and require counseling or therapy to overcome
Plant Food
A drug that is similar to bath salts in that it was marketed as plant food to avoid legal issues. It is a stimulant that can cause health issues ranging from difficulty concentrating to hallucinations.
Play Therapy
When therapists interact with children through play and use this interaction to understand the problems they are facing and provide solutions.
Pornography Addiction
A mental dependence on the stimulation provided by pornography. This dependence will often quickly become a major focus of a person's life, getting in the way of other important matters.
Positive Peer Culture
The influence of peers in a way that encourages the formation of healthy values and good choices. This is often essential to the success of teens and their ability to avoid things like substance abuse and violence.
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
A mental disorder that results from being in situations of incredibly stress. It is often characterized by extreme anxiety, stress, difficulty managing emotions and depression. This disorder is frequently seen in soldiers returning from combat situations.
Postpartum Depression
A hormonal imbalance that is common in women after giving birth. This often requires medication or therapy to deal with but will fade relatively quickly.
Pot
A slang term for marijuana. This substance is illegal and thought to have a negative impact on brain and lung function.
Prescription Drugs
Drugs that are used as medications and are given to individuals be doctors to treat specific problems. Unfortunately, it is very common for these medications to later be abused.
Prodrome
An indication of a disorder that might already fully exist or may be forming.
Prognosis
The outcome of a illness or disorder that is predicted by a clinician. When someone is diagnosed, they will generally also receive a prognosis.
Psychiatric Treatment Programs
Therapeutic treatments designed to help those suffering from mental disorders recover.
Psychoanalysis
A process by which a trained psychologist or psychiatrist seeks to identify the reasons behind the problems a person is facing and guide them towards effective solutions.
Psychologist
A person who specializes in studying the mind and how mental function influences behavior.
Psychology
The study of the human mind and behavior. This field of science directly relates to the treatment of disorders involving mental illness.
Psychosocial Rehabilitation
The process of getting an individual who has been treated for a mental disorder re-involved in their community and previous life after they leave treatment.
Pyromania
An obsession with fire. Often those suffering from pyromania will have a compulsive need to light fires.
Rave
A slang term for a party or concert that generally involves taking drugs such as ecstasy and MDMA. The growing popularity of these events has led to a proliferation of these drugs.
Reactive Attachment Disorder
A disorder that causes children to have extreme difficulty in forming healthy social relationships. In some cases this results in over familiarity with strangers, in others a reluctance to engage and connect with even family members. This condition is often the result of a child failing to establish a connection with parents or caregivers during the first few months of their life.
Recovery
The process of overcoming difficulties ranging from mental health problems to addiction through therapy and professional guidance.
Regression
When a person's mental state transitions to a more childlike state as a result of trauma.
Relationship Counseling
Therapy and exercises designed to help families and couples strengthen their relationships while overcoming any issues they have been struggling with. This therapy generally takes place under the supervision of a trained psychologist.
Repression
When a behavior, personality trait, or memory is prevented from being manifested. This can take place consciously or unconsciously depending on the situation.
Residential Treatment Center
A program that provides a place to live so that participants can be engaged in their recovery 24 hours a day. This is often helpful as it removes the temptations and distractions that might cause relapse in an outpatient treatment environment.
Resilience
The ability to mentally rebound from difficult and traumatic situations. Having this trait is very important to the long-term mental health of an individual.
Responsibility In Teens
Teens understanding the potential consequences of their actions and being willing to accept those consequences.
Ritalin
A drug that is commonly used to treat ADD and ADHD. This has become increasingly popular as diagnosis for these conditions become more common.
Role Model
A person that provides a behavioral model to children and teens. Role models are often important to the formation of values and beliefs. In many cases, children will view parents or older siblings as role models.
Ropes Adventure Therapy
A unique form of therapy that relies upon using the experience of going through simulated danger in an obstacle course while accompanied by a counselor. The goal of this experience is to help a person come to terms with issues like substance abuse, anger, or depression.
Runaways
Children and teens who are considered troubled and have attempted on or more times to leave home without their parents permission. Often, these youths will struggle with issues like depression, anger, and substance abuse.
Sadness
An emotion that is characterized by either grief or unhappiness. This is a normal part of the spectrum of human emotions but can become a problem when experienced chronically due to mental health issues.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
Know as SSRI's, this is a group of drugs that is meant to increase the amount of serotonin present in the brain. The intention of this treatment is to improve the mental and physical state of those suffering from depression.
Self-Destructive Behavior
Actions that have a negative short or long-term impact on the physical or mental health of an individual. Some of the most common of these include drug use, violence, and truancy.
Self-Directed Learning
An educational style in which the student is allowed to focus on areas that are of interest to them. This type of education has been growing in popularity recently.
Self-Improvement
The process of trying to overcome difficulties and setbacks while gaining new skills and increased mental health.
Self-Injury
When a person harms themselves intentionally. This can be chronic, such as cutting behavior, or a suicide attempt.
Separation Anxiety Disorder
A condition that causes a great deal of stress to individuals when they are separated from familiar individuals or in new surroundings.
Serotonin
A chemical that is vital to healthy brain function. Having a serotonin deficit is a common reason for depression.
Sexual Compulsivity
When a person is constantly driven to engage in sex or sexual behavior. This is a form of sex addiction.
Sexual Identity
The way in which a person relates to their sexuality and gender role. This can be a frequent problem for individuals when their sexual identity does not conform to the cultural norm.
Sleep Disorders
A number of different problems that a person can experience which make sleep difficult.
Smack
A street name for the drug heroin
Sober Coaches
Individuals that are trained to provide support and encouragement to individuals who are attempting to remain sober after leaving rehab treatment facility.
Sober Living
The choice to live free of the influence of drugs, alcohol, or any other mind altering substances. This is often necessary for former addicts seeking to avoid relapse.
Social Anxiety Disorder
A nervous disorder that is characterized by extreme discomfort in public situations and around new people. In extreme cases, this can lead to a person become a recluse and rejecting contact with the outside world.
Social Development
The process by which a person learns who to relate to their peers in a healthy way and begins to form lasting emotional attachments.
Social Media
Online peer interaction through websites like Facebook, Myspace, or Twitter. This has become incredibly popular in the last 10 years, particularly among teenagers.
Somatization
A condition in which a person experiences pain or other types of discomfort in parts of the body despite there being no medical explanation.
Special Education Programs
Programs that specialize in assisting those with developmental or learning disorders in furthering their education.
Speed
A street term for amphetamine.
Spice
A new drug that is marketed as an alternative to marijuana. It is legal to buy but not consume, making it easily available to teenagers.
Steroids
A widely used drug that boosts testosterone with the goal of gaining additional muscle. Most commonly used by athletes, this drug can have serious side effects including higher cancer risk, increased blood pressure, and hormonal imbalance.
Stress Cutting
A self-harm behavior that often emerges in troubled teens who are dealing with depression and other issues. This is particularly dangerous as teens can become addicted to self-harm, making it inevitable that they will eventually cause serious and lasting damage to their health.
Stressor
A situation or person who increases the amount of stress an individual is experiencing.
Struggling Teen
A person between the ages of 13 and 19 who is experiencing difficulties that they have been unable to resolve independently.
Struggling Youth
A young person who has been experiencing issues ranging from trouble in school to violence or substance abuse.
Substance Abuse
The act of using drugs in a way that is causing mental and physical harm. Substance abuse will often eventually result in addiction.
Suicide
The act of ending one's own life. Often this decision is driven by the experience of mental illness or extremely traumatic events.
Support Group
A social network of people dealing with similar problems. These are meant to offer guidance and encouragement with the goal of long-term recovery.
Symptoms
The noticeable results of an illness or disorder. It is generally symptoms that allow clinicians to make a patients initial diagnosis.
Syndrome
A mental or physical condition that is congenital.
System of Care
The overall group of services that are meant to guide an individual through the recovery process.
Teen Celebrity Worship
The idolization of various well known figures. This can be dangerous when teens choose to emulate the behavior of poor role models.
Teen Culture
The overall characteristics of contemporary teen attitudes and behavior. This can have a great deal of influence over the individual choices each teen makes.
Teen Delinquency
When teens engage in dangerous and illegal behavior. Often, this behavior is a result of a lack of discipline or positive role models.
Teen Emotional Instability
Because teens are still developing their personality and becoming accustomed to their new level of independence, they will frequently have trouble regulating their emotions. This can also be due to hormonal changes that take place during the teen years.
Teen Lying
Deceptive behavior that often becomes common in youths who are making dangerous or risky decisions. In extreme cases this becomes chronic and can have a serious impact on personal interactions.
Teen Prescription Drug Abuse
A growing problem among teens, they will find these drugs easily available in their or friends houses. These drugs can be particularly dangerous due to the perception that prescribed medications are more safe than street drugs.
Teen Promiscuity
Sexual behavior that is often engaged in before teens are emotionally ready to handle the results. This is becoming an increasingly prominent problem in high school age children.
Teen Religious Beliefs
Often, a teen's personal spiritual beliefs will begin to develop as they start to develop an individual identity seperate from their parents.
Teen Sexting
When teens use cellphones to send explicit and suggestive messages to their peers or other individuals.
Teen Sexuality
Because teens are going through major hormonal changes and having their bodies mature they will begin to develop their own sexuality.
Teen Spirituality
The religious beliefs that at teen develops as they go through the process of maturing.
Television Addiction
Increasingly, children and teens are becoming addicted to T.V., this is defined as watching more than 3 hours every day.
Therapeutic Boarding School
A school that is designed to immerse youths in programs that can help them overcome the issues they have been dealing with while also providing academic support. These schools will often offer a wide variety of treatment options that take place over either the short or long term.
Therapist
A person who has been trained in providing appropriate treatment to individuals struggling with their mental health. Finding the correct therapist is often an essential step in the overall recovery process.
Tobacco
One of the most commonly abused and dangerous substances. Because tobacco products almost always include nicotine, they are incredibly addictive. This is dangerous as they have been proven to cause a variety of cancers as well as other health problems.
Tolerance
The overall ability of a person to ingest substances without experiencing the same level of intoxication. This often leads to overdose, as individuals intake more substances in an effort to achieve the same results they had experienced earlier.
Tourettes Syndrome

A mental disorder that is characterized by involuntary verbal or physical tics. This can be difficult to improve upon without treatment.

Transsexualism
The mental state of believing that you do not wish to be the gender you were born or that you were born the wrong gender. In extreme cases this can lead to surgery that attempts to reconcile the patients body with their desires.
Trauma
An impactful event that causes damage to a person's mental or physical health. These events can often be a driving factor behind the formation of mental health issues.
Traumatic Bonding
An emotional connection that is formed between two people when one or both of them is going through a traumatic event.
Treatment
Programs and services designed to bring about lasting change in those who have been dealing with mental health issues.
Troubled Boy
A male under the age of 18 who has chronically struggled with issues such as substance abuse, anger, depression, violence or poor school performance.
Troubled Girl
A female under the age of 18 who has chronically struggled with issues such as substance abuse, anger, depression, violence or poor school performance.
Troubled Teen

trou.bled teen

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n.noun

The term, 'troubled teen,' is used to identify adolescents who consistently display impulsive, self-destructive and out of control behaviors. The behavior of troubled teens can be modified after enrolling in a treatment program known as, psychiatric treatment for troubled teens.

Troubled teens display harmful behaviors such as self-harm, substance abuse, and rebelliousness. Adolescents who are considered to be 'troubled' are at risk of developing life-long, potentially fatal, habits. Troubled teens are at high risk of abusing harmful substances as a means of dealing with personal, psychological issues. For this reason, it is crucial for parents to seek treatment for their child.

Troubled teens suffer from severe, psychological disorders. It is because of these disorders that troubled boys and girls choose to display out of control behaviors. However, through psychological treatment, teens who are deemed as 'troubled,' can achieve psychiatric restoration. Additionally, therapeutic services such as therapeutic boarding schools, group homes, residential treatment centers and wilderness therapy programs for troubled teens are viable choices for parents of troubled teens to consider.

Truancy
When teens or younger children do not attend school without getting the permission of their parents and school officials.
Uppers
A drug that is characterized by stimulating impact it has on users as opposed to downers which have a sedative effect. Some of the most common uppers include meth, cocaine, and speed.
Values
The ideals that a person or group use to define their place in the world and ascertain the correct way to behave in any given situation.
Violent Movies
Movies that include graphic and glorified depictions of violent behavior. It is widely believed that this type of media has a negative influence on the development and behavior of teens.
Violent Television
Television programs that include graphic and glorified depictions of violent behavior. It is widely believed that this type of media has a negative influence on the development and behavior of teens.
Violent Video Games
Games that include graphic and glorified depictions of violent behavior. It is widely believed that this type of media has a negative influence on the development and behavior of teens.
Wilderness Therapy
Closely related to adventure therapy, this form of treatment centers around using guided experiences in nature to help teens and adults overcome traumatic events and come to terms with issues like substance abuse, depression, anger, or other problems.
Withdrawal
The physical changes that take place in a persons body when they stop taking a substance they have become physically dependent upon. This occurs frequently when addicts attempt to stop taking drugs like cocaine, heroine, alcohol, or tobacco.
Xanax
A common prescription drug primarily used to treat anxiety. Because of it's widespread availability it is very commonly abused.
Young Adult Transitional Programs
A treatment options that is meant to give young adults support and guidance as they establish themselves as independent and responsible adults.
Youth Counseling
Therapeutic treatments specifically designed to help children and teens deal with their issues. Some of the common issues that are addressed include substance abuse, anger, and poor school performance.
Youth Gangs
Groups of teens who frequently engage in dangerous behaviors such as drug use or violence. These are particularly common in poor intercity communities.
Youth Unemployment
Recently, an increasing number of young people have been unable to find jobs. With the economy performing poorly, youth are often the first to suffer from unemployment as they are squeezed out of the workplace by more experienced adults.
Youth Violence
When youths are involved in gangs and other dangerous activities, it is common that they will engage in violence. This can lead to long-term legal ramifications in addition to other dangers.

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